Shiftwork is the work we have to do to manage, thrive and survive in a world where shift happens. I’ve identified 11 shifts that we have to make (see here), so far I’ve addressed the first six, and in this post, I address the seventh shift. The earlier ones you can read by following these links:
- first shift Prediction To Prediction And Pattern Making (see here)
- second shift From Plans To Plans And Planning (see here)
- third one From Narrowing Down To Being Focused On Openness (here)
- fourth shift From Control To Controlled Flexibility (see here)
- fifth shift From Risk As Failure To Risk As Endeavour (see here)
- sixth shift From Probabilities To Probable Possibilities (see here)
We live in a world that is complex, changing and therefore inherently uncertain. These fundamental features of our world apply to everything from cellular reproduction to operating the windscreen wipers on a car. It is how we respond to the challenges that complexity, change and uncertainty pose that influences or determines how successfully and happily we live in this world.
Ironically, one of the most common responses to complexity, change and uncertainty is to act to reduce or eliminate them, or if we cannot do that, to pretend they do not exist. We can cope with the idea that one factor causes or influences another thing – like heat turning bread into toast, and we are especially happy when the relationship is controllable – the longer in the toaster, the browner the toast. However when there are nine different options to operate the windscreen wipers it is all too much. I know someone who has just sold their car for a cheaper and simpler one for this reason! If only the world and the people in it obeyed simple rules, life could be conquered, neatly bundled up and put in a box.
To be fair, this approach has been spectacularly successful in many regards. Sit under an apple tree long enough and you will appreciate Newton’s insights about gravity and apples. Lots of things in the physical world do appear at the human scale to behave in predictable and lawful ways over reasonably long periods of time. Stonehenge is still standing, Warwick Castle remains, the Pyramids are still around.
However, when it comes to humans and human interactions, simple models of behavior have proved to be less successful, humans and their interactions have proved to be less predictable, less controllable. There are simply too many different influences coming to bear at any one time with a tendency to change from one moment to the next.
This has not stopped us from trying to account for behavior in the relatively simple terms of personality, star sign, gender, sexuality, head shape, body shape, political views, family history, birth place, birth order, early childhood experience, love of cats or dogs and many more. In nearly all cases evidence can be found that suggests these factors do play a small part in our behavior. However the emphasis is on the small part they play, and even when combined there is still a very large amount of uncertainty in behavior remaining.
Nonetheless the desire for a predictable live leads us to implementing strategies that are predicated on the world being an unchanging, controllable and predictable place. The three most common strategies are Goal Setting; Role Setting and Routine Setting.
Goal setting is the most popular behavior change strategy employed by individuals and organizations. It is almost uncritically accepted, a point I and several others have been making for some time (see this article and this one).
In complexity terms, goal setting involves reducing all of the complexity in a situation simply to the actor and the goal – from here to there. The strength of goal setting is that it demands that we focus upon a clearly defined target, and very often it further demands that we move toward that target within a specific time frame.
As I’ve pointed out before (along with others) goal setting works well in psychology labs and in the short-term. Over longer periods (typically more than 3 – 6 months) the potential for things changing in our environments, or us changing is so great that the goal posts shift or are obliterated.
In situations where there is a lot of ambiguity and change, there is a danger that goal setting will lock us in too early to an objective that is ultimately undesirable. Goals work best in simple situations in the short-term. Goals can be useful, but to rely on them overly or exclusively runs the risk of missing opportunities that change brings, or becoming rigid, stereotyped and irrelevant in a complex changing situation.
Another way of simplifying the world is to think of ourselves and others as occupying roles. We do this to ourselves when we think in terms of “worker”, “homemaker”, “parent”, “lover”, “child” etc. Like goals these can be useful ways of making sense, but ultimately they are limited and too rigid to capture the complexity of a changing world. The simplistic messages first adumbrated about work-life balance highlight the limitations of dividing the world into these categories. The reality is messier, the boundaries are blurred. In organizations in the past, the extensive application of roles in the workplace led to demarcation disputes, inflexibility and a lack of competitiveness. Organizations with rigid structures have typically not fared well in the 21st century business environment. Similarly those with an overly rigid sense of self, reinforced by a role label also struggle.
The third strategy is to impose routines as way of increasing predictability and reducing complexity. Everyone knows where they are with a set of rules. Funnily in sport, the most artificial of rule-governed environments, where doing the best within the rules is the whole raison d’etre, the rules often change from one season to the next. For instance check this site to see how the rules changed in baseball. Changes are made as players adapt and exploit loopholes or even as was the case in 1975, a shortage of horses meant they needed to find another type of hide to cover the balls!
The point is that there is always an exception to the rule. Things change unpredictably requiring the rules or routines to change. Rules and routines are always a response to complexity, they never lead or tame it. Further because things are complex, the rules or routines will never be able to fully capture or anticipate that complexity.
We all have experienced the exasperation of dealing with “more than my job’s worth” little pedants – or their voice activated counter-parts, or sometimes whole bureaucracies that just cant or wont respond to your particular circumstances. Rules, regulations, policies and the like are an essential part of life that provide a degree of certainty and consistency of expectation in human interaction, but like Goals and Roles, when applied rigidly, without finesse and wisdom, they can become rigid, inefficient, and sometimes damaging or even inhumane.
Shift 7 is about recognising the value and importance of these strategies, but seeks to add other approaches to life that transcend these attempts at trying to control and predict everything. The move to Meaning, Mattering and Black Swans underlines the fundamental importance of these things to the human condition.
Doing things that have personal or community meaning is an important but neglected consideration in our work and organizations. Instead of jumping straight to the goal setting tool bag to solve our problems, time spent reflecting on what is the most meaningful thing that I or we could do, may provide a bigger guiding framework into which shorter-term goals or roles or routines begin to make sense. Having this sense of meaningful work also provides a home for wisdom – the wisdom to recognize when goals are not appropriate or should be changed or abandoned.
Mattering is a related concept to meaning and it relates to doing work that matters to us and to others. It means doing work that resonates with our sense of calling, purpose or vision, and work that has a tangible and important positive effect on others or society. It is about social connection and doing something useful and worthwhile. It is work as social contribution. Again mattering is superordinate concept to Goals, Roles and Routines. It guides us as to their use and application.
Ironically Meaning and Mattering are the things that provide the motive force to maintain Goals, Roles and Routines. It is when we start to question whether what we are doing is meaningless or feel that is does not matter to us or to others that we begin to waiver, before getting stuck. Often a failure to think sufficiently and frequently about Meaning and Mattering risks us following Goals, Roles and Routines on autopilot, and in so doing we do not take into account the shifting sands of our lives and the result is we run aground and get stuck fast. As Norm Amundson points out many people (and organizations) report feeling “stuck” when they hit a crisis point.
Finally, the Black Swans refers to the term I think was termed by Nassim Taleb in his eponymous book from 2007. He makes the point that Europeans assumed that all swans were white until a black one was discovered in Western Australia. The point is that in many situations (more than we tend to appreciate) it only takes one thing of which we were previously unaware to change everything. Black Swans are a reminder that what we dont know we dont know has the greatest potential to impact our lives and they are things that we cannot predict with goals, or simplify into Roles or Routines.
The presence of Black Swans in our lives (that Taleb credits for every event of signifcance in human history!) is a potent reminder of the severe limitations on our ability to predict, control, goal-set, role-set or routinize our lives. It is a reminder that if we want to be successful in our lives, we need to do what is meaningful, what matters and to be excited and content to live with the uncertainty of Black Swans.